Friday, February 7, 2020
Market analysis - Essay Example In general, soft drinks manufacturers have adapted to the new ways of living by responding to the demand for healthier products. This has helped add value to their products and generate growth. In 2004, total consumption of fruit/ vegetable juice increased by 7% and by 2009, the overall market conditions are projected to remain highly favourable for the fruit/ vegetable juice sector. 100% juice is expected reach volume growth of 43% and volume sales of 221 million litres or 384 million euros by 2009. (Euromonitor 2005) This supports the entry of Fruitness into the growing juice sector. Major players in the industry such as Coca-Cola, Spadel, Sunco (bottler and distributor of PepsiCo), Danone, Unilever, Nestle, Materne-Confilux, Wesergold, Melitta (Granini) and Looza (Tropicana) have manufacturing plants and distribution networks all over UK. As Fruitness will target companies in London only, our manufacturing facility will be located in or in close proximity to London. While the sector shows positive growth for the next three years, juice and nectar producers are already looking for new ways of keeping sales growing. As such, product innovation as well as packaging and pack sizes are very important in the juice/ vegetable juice industry. Orange is the most popular flavour with 17% share of the sector volume sales, grapefruit is second with 11% and tomato is third with 9%. As orange is still the leader, Fruitness is focusing on pure orange and orange based juices. Once established, Fruitness will invest in additional equipment in order to expand its existing product range and cater for customer's growing interest in other flavours. 100% juices dominate fruit/ vegetable juice products and the leading performance among the fruit/ vegetable juice sector is taken by 100% juice. The popularity of this subsector is due to the increasingly active and sporty British consumer lifestyle and interest in healthier diet. Nectars and juice drinks are less popular among the British consumers. Promotional activities and the presentation of a variety of fresh 100% juices by companies such as Looza and Melitta, have created a significant consumer awareness of the health benefits of these products and as a result, there have subsequently been consumer shifts towards these. In addition, there has been a slight shift from long-life products to chilled/ short-life products in 2003 and 2004. Industry sources also expect stronger forecast period growth for chilled/ short-life products due to the fact that the majority of British consumers are against concentrates and prefer more natural, fresh products. To summarize, the main trends in the juice industry are differentiation including the incorporation of new flavours, new packaging formats and more targeted marketing as well as the reduction in calories and sugar and inclusion of vitamins C, E, minerals, selenium and phytosterols. In addition carbonated beverage manufacturers have already started to develop healthier products, such as juice with calcium, especially for women, and
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Conceptualization of the study Essay Traditionally since its inception, The Black Church in America has been a symbol of unity in the black community. In times of crisis it has cut across various religious positions and has served as a spiritual base camp for blacks in America for many years. It has also played a role in community participation, social activities and provided care for the sick and a place of refuge for the poor. During the civil rights movement the black community looked to the church leaders as an instrument that could effect change for their social conditions. During that time, black church leaders were influential to many of the social changes that we partake of today. Any important institution of society will have a number of roles and functions, and thus, an impact upon its membership. The Black church is no exception. In his study of the Black church, distinguished social scientist E. Franklin Frazier included a chapter, Ã¢â¬Å"The Black Church: Nation within a Nation,Ã¢â¬ in which he saw the church as an Ã¢â¬Å"agency of social control,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ as an Ã¢â¬Å"economic cooperative,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ as an Ã¢â¬Å"educational institution,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ as an Ã¢â¬Å"arena of political life,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ and as a Ã¢â¬Å"refuge in a hostile white world: (Frazier, 1964). These functionsÃ¢â¬âpolitical, economic, social, and securityÃ¢â¬âall attest to the secular scope of the Black church. Some students of the Black church have supported this view of the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s secular function. An example is Joseph Washington, Jr. (1964), referring to the work of the late Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. as an extension of the religious role of the church into the civil rights area. Although Washington viewed KingÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy as a perversion of the uses of Christian theology, and tended to view this activity as negative, his rationale was based on a lack of emphasis on theology in the Black church. Other writers have tended to support the view that, the function of the Black church was not so much to foster the spiritual growth of its members by its adherence to and development of the normal Christian theology of the church, as it was to serve their spiritually-related secular needs. St. Clair Drake and Horace Cayton, for instance, say in their study of the Black church in Chicago in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s: The Negro Church is ostensibly a Ã¢â¬Å"religious organization,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ but Bronzeville expects it, too, to Ã¢â¬Å"advance the race. Ã¢â¬ Negro Baptists think of their congregation as a Ã¢â¬Å"Race Church,Ã¢â¬ and their leaders concern themselves with such matters as fighting the job ceiling and demanding equal economic opportunity as well as Ã¢â¬Å"serving the Lord. Ã¢â¬ (Drake and Cayton, 1970 Pg 167). Kelly Miller also says that the Black church Ã¢â¬Å" was not yet able to formulate a theological statement of its doctrine,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ that it broke from the white church and Ã¢â¬Å"decided to go worship God under its own fig tree,Ã¢â¬ and in so doing, developed a distinctive orientation (Miller, 1968). Others, however, such as Gayraud S. Wilmore and James Cone, built on the Drake and Cayton notion of the Black church as a Ã¢â¬Å"race church. Ã¢â¬ They outlined the tendency of the Black church to be responsive to the dominant forces in the Black community by pointing to the compatibility between the Ã¢â¬Å"BlacknessÃ¢â¬ of the church and the dominant ideologiesÃ¢â¬âsuch as Black powerÃ¢â¬âin the community (Wilmore, 1973; Cone, 1969). Assuming these notions are true, it should be possible to test a theory of the responsiveness of the Black Church. Learning more about the function of the Black church is made urgent by the increased necessity for it to be responsive to the social needs of the Black community. The nature of these social needs is made urgent by the many new problems, of this age. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND PURPOSE TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Problems which relate to the role of the church in secular activities is in its relationship to black families. The number of black families headed by black females has continued to rise over the years verses other ethnic groups. This dramatic rise may be attributed to an increase in babies born out of wedlock, divorce and separations, all of which have more serious underlying causes, and which also have ramifications on the ability to maintain adequate income for provisional needs. The church formerly was the home for many entire extended families in the Black community; as such, it played a role in establishing standards of conduct; legitimizing births, marriages, and deaths; educating and caring for children; and counseling married individuals. Consequently, the church was a resource center for the Black family, and played a role in its survival. If there are now new pressures on the family whichÃ¢â¬âin addition to employment-related difficultiesÃ¢â¬âthreaten the survival of the family, it is also worthwhile to assess the modern role of the church and the extent to which it provides services to meet these new needs. In light of the current problems facing the Black community, it is appropriate and necessary that a new assessment be made of the various institutions within the community which played a role in its progress. PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY The purpose of this study is to ascertain the present-day role of the Black church as a community institution, particularly with respect to the views of the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership, membership, and individuals in the community. To what extent, if any, does the church leadership believe that the Black church should be involved in the community? How do church members perceive the scope of the church as it relates to non-secular activities? And to what extent do residents, especially non-church members, view the church as a community resource? IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY 1. To gain insight of how church leaders and members, perceive the role of the Black church in the 21st Century. 2. To understand the communities view of what role the church should play in the political, social and economic activities of the community. 3. To define to what extent the black church will sponsor religious and secular programs. ASSUMPTIONS This study was prepared based upon the following assumptions: 1. To assist the church in bridging the gap and being more effective in its mission to serve through its activities. 2. To broaden the awareness of church leaders and members on the needs of the black community it serves. 3. To demonstrate to local leaders the contributions the black church has to offer for the welfare of its citizens. 4. To identify church programs that shows potential for future community growth. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study will be limited in the following way: 1. The primary focus of this study is to identify the impact of the black church in the community in which it exists. DEFINITION OF TERMS The following terms are defined to clarify their meaning in the context of study: Culture: The acquired knowledge, traits and symbols of a society Community: A group of people living in the same locally and under the same government. Secular: Not specifically relating to religion or to a religious body. METHOD OF STUDY This action research study will utilize action research, implementing quantitative research techniques. Quantitative research was selected for this study because it generates the comprehensive data needed for verification of results. ACTION RESEARCH The primary research method selected for this study is action research, because action research is concerned with improving a specific situation. Isaac and Michael validated the appropriateness of action research by confirming that it provides an organized structure to develop new skills or new approaches and so to solve problems with direct application to the classroom or working world setting. They suggested an orderly framework for problem solving and new developments that are superior to the impressionistic, fragmentary approach that typifies developments in education (1974, 13-30). Lewin, however, is credited with developing the term action research in 1944. He described the method as a cyclic operation in which the researcher is a participant in the process rather than a disinterested observer. The following steps are included in an action research study: (1) a planning or conceptualization step; (2) research or a fact-finding step; (3) an evaluation step; and (4) an execution step (1948, 34-36) Fermin and Levin in 1975 further described the research design as a preliminary and flexible strategy of investigation strategy of investigation or plan of action. The research is aimed at discovering Ã¢â¬Å"why,Ã¢â¬ and as a result, focuses centrally upon explaining social or political phenomena with answers of a theoretical nature. The research operates at a fuller or higher level of description, which includes making rational statements containing reasons or causes for behavior. Borg argued that action research design has as the chief benefit (1) a practical solution to a problem that may lead to a permanent improvement in the research environment; (2) it is the most appropriate method when practical significance is required rather than statistical and (3) the applicability of the finds are immediate and often of permanent improvement (1963, 319-322). QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Isaac and Michael described quantitative research as allowing the researcher to formulate research questions or hypotheses and then to test each under controlled conditions. They decided its greatest merit is the convincing nature of hard data collected that can speak for itself (1974, 354-355). PROCEDURES To conduct this study, the following actions will be taken regarding each of the objectives: First objective: To identify and report the desired behaviors required for future Christian education leaders. 1. The literature of the field will be reviewed in the following areas: (a) Biblical context, (b) Church History, and (c) contemporary ministry. 2. The findings of the literature will be reported in chapter 2. Second objective: To validate the behaviors identified in the literature review. In order for the inventory of behaviors to be comprehensive, Flanagan stated that it is necessary to obtain a sufficiently representative sample (1949, 343). a) The degree of mutuality existing among the behaviors reported will be identified with respect to the different clusters. b) The number of behaviors will continue to be reduced by combining similar behaviors and writing new descriptions without regard for specific categories. c) The final inventory of administrative behaviors will be produced by the researcher. 2. The findings of the inventory of behaviors will be reported in chapter 3. Third objective: To make appropriate recommendations on the selection and training of future education administrators. 1. The study, including the findings of objectives 1 and 2 will be reviewed and summarized. 2. Appropriate conclusions will be drawn. 3. Specific recommendation which emerge from the study will be made, including suggestions for utilization of the competency areas recommended by the study, and suggestions for further research. 4. The summary, conclusions, and recommendation including check list will be reported in chapter 4. ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY The study will be organized into four chapters in accordance with the Action Research, as table 1 displays. TABLE 1 Organization of the study based on action research Action Research Steps Chapters 1 2 3 4 Planning/Conceptualization X Fact Finding X X X Evaluation X Chapter 1 has stated the problem and purpose, explained the importance of the study, and stated the method. Chapter 2 will survey the literature to identify and report behaviors required to effectively analyze the characteristics of the church leaders, church members and surrounding neighborhood. Chapter 3 will report the validated behaviors for the role of the church. Chapter 4 will review and summarized the study, offer appropriate conclusion and discuss recommendations for change and future study. CHAPTER 2 CHARACTERISTICS We expect every church planter either black or white to be a good leader. Everyone else who knows about leader and his ministry, even including his group people expect it too. This is truly right no matter who a church planter is, may be any man or woman, may be a minister having both in church and outside of the church jobs. He may be a permanent pastor. Every church planter must enquire about his personality by self-questioning in such a personal way so that obtaining answers can help him to be sure about his decision and can help him to find out his true calling these answer can also help planter to know his future as a leader of his group. Our own understanding taught us about good leaders and leadership which we learned by working with different leaders. These leaders are the ones that people have known, read or watched about them. A successful leader has four elements including organization second program third morale and forth leadership. The greatest of four is leadership. Although morale is condition of mind and character that shows the person is brave. It also includes ability to do things with full trust on your self. The organizational element is based on morale followers; program of a church goes where the leadership goes. People have studied different kinds of leaders in secular history and in the Bible. The Lord Jesus Christ is their example as a true leader in Christian service. In the Bible God chose many people as leaders in His work for example Abraham, Noah, Nehemiah, Joseph, Paul and Daniel. Whenever the God leads anyone to think, about going into the Christian ministry he must look for a person who could demonstrate Him, what His person really used to be. A question also rises of what does God require of that person as His leader? And what it takes to be a good leader? The needed qualities of a Christian leader or a church planter should be as the Joseph had he even became a picture or copy of Jesus Christ. Josephs acts and character were good qualities for a church leader any church leader with these characteristics will definitely have success. Ã¢â¬Å"It is vital that counselors who collaborate with African American congregations understand that titles and the values assigned to them can be very important in the Black church and within many African American families. Counselors who do not use the formal titles of ministers, church leaders, older church members, and members who have earned doctoral degrees run the risk of hampered rapport. Ã¢â¬ (2005, 147) The God selected some of His people to be prophets, apostles, pastors, missionaries, and teachers, so that His people would be taught to serve and would become strong. This will carry on until we are united on accepting the Son of God by our faith. All the church has realized the need for leadership; they spend a big part of their life with the life of the church. People often think about the job of church leaders without attempting to connect their roles to the nature and purpose of the church. It means that church leaders become functionaries rather than ministers and become organization maintainers rather than church mission leader. But true black church leader as a person is that who uses his gifts to facilitate others in ministry, and then making suggestions and observations for implications to church. TESTIMONY OF PERSONAL CONNECTION WITH GOD When we talk about a church leader having a testimony, it proofs that God is with the leader and leader is with God. A church leader seeks a leadership ministry in Gods service and discusses his personal experience in the Christ. Sharing of a Christian testimony with others in public is the result of that personal experience. Ã¢â¬Å"The LORD was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man; and he was in the house of his master the EgyptianÃ¢â¬ (Genesis 39:2) Private and public life of a church leader, as a Christian, supports his testimony and influences others to become Christian. People expect church leader to be person who follows words and prayers of God. A church leader demonstrates people by giving example of personal closeness to God in his private and public. People judge their weaknesses with the help of purposeful Christian testimony of the leader. A church leader witnesses for Christ through his hands, lips, works and entire life. STRONG CERTAINTY AS A CHURCH LEADER Certainty represents freedom and surety of fact from doubt. It means a church leader is ahead of all other people sent by God. A church leader has a sense of call to be Gods leader so it gives him a special desire for leadership ministry. It also gives him a deep faith that God has His hands in his progress. It helps in making him sure that God wants him to be a church leader. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦. God sent me ahead of youÃ¢â¬ ¦.. to preserve for you a remnant on earth Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. it was not you who sent me here, but GodÃ¢â¬ (Gen 45. 5,7,8). His firm belief gives him inner faith and courage and helps him to go through hard times in his work by staying firmly on the job until finish it according to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s order. He does his job with dignity and proud character and blessings of the God who asked him to lead and serve. Ã¢â¬Å"Paul, a bond-servant of Christ Jesus, called as an apostle, set apart for the gospel of GodÃ¢â¬ (Romans 1). The ministry requires church leaders to be certain of their calling as Gods leaders. INTEGRITY BEING A PART OF PERSONALITY Integrity is being truthful and honest. It also refers moral excellence and living and doing in a right manner. A church leader is true to him-self and keeps him-self pure and honorable. He knows the importance to keep integrity in front of God and people. Integrity as a needed quality for church leaders, and a church leader is free from any blame. He stands for God before his group and the people inside and outside of the church. A church planter makes a new church healthy when he has integrity in his private and public life. He knows how important it is for him to have authority as a leader, not only for just leadership but a church leader shows it in daily life. People need church leaders having integrity in their personality to teach them the difference between the right and wrong and help them choosing the right. DISTINCT CAPABILITIES When we talk about capabilities it represents fitness or ability. Distinct capability of a church leader enables him to do his job in a good manner wherever he serves people. Church leaders are good mentors they are wise and trusted persons who give advices. A church leader keeps on improving his talent by using his mentor and measuring obtaining results. People think that the greatest ability of a church leader is that, he depends only on God to avoid making mistakes in delivering his services to both God and people. Ability for church leading or planting is one of the parts of learnt talents of a church leader. USE OF AUTHORITY A church leader should use his authority properly which is given by the God and community. A church leader is not a good leader if no one is following him. People obey him because of his owning authority and their trust on his authority. Church leaders know above all else, that their power as a leader came from God. They receive authority and become GodÃ¢â¬â¢s witnesses when the Holy Spirit appears on them. A church leader understands that his leadership power comes from the God and understands that those, whom he serves, give him authority as a leader. Ã¢â¬Å"A Christian does not forget that his leadership depends on responsibility that goes with authorityÃ¢â¬ (2-corinthians-5:9) A church leader uses these blessings for establishing of the groups or churches, his position as a leader is to achieve success in carrying out Gods purpose. If a church leader uses his authority in a wrong or bad use then he will definitely suffer for his doings. The church leaders should not forget that their leaderships depend on responsibility and their authority goes with equal responsibility. It means they should be able to believe and precede these authorities in a reasonable manner. ACCOUNTABLE A church leader is responsible for using church assets and other resources in an appropriate manner Ã¢â¬â he should be accountable for himself. So Pharaoh said to Joseph, Im putting you in charge of the whole land of EgyptÃ¢â¬â¢ (Genesis 41:41). They trusted Joseph because of his self accountability. People who follow and support a church leader do not question about his plans for them. He opens his books for others to see and believes that honesty is a good policy. Church leaders spend their life on good and respected principles, the God and people expect that every church leader must have all of the qualities of Abraham, Noah, etc. A Church leader in leadership position is believed accountable and honest Christian leader. He needs to love the GodÃ¢â¬â¢s messengerÃ¢â¬â¢s reports or reviews and do what they do. The reports or reviews help him to improve from good to a better leader. A church leader makes decisions according to religious possibilities; he accepts responsibility for the obtaining result of his decisions. People usually do not consider religious aspects in their routine they read religious books like open letters. A church leader knows how to make good decisions, he then lives with the decisions that he has made and accepts responsibility for his works. PLANS AND DIRECT ACTIONS A church leader knows how to plan and direct actions to avoid any mistakes being made. He formulates and deploys plans to achieve objectives Ã¢â¬â he directs the work accordingly until it finishes. He creates different questions in his mind; for example, what to do, why to do it, when to do it, how to do it, who to do, and how to finish it. A church leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s plans are simple, people who work as group members and other people who follow him understand his plans clearly. He forms teams and give them duties so that they can work with authority and responsibility. He makes rules that people accept to follow. The God wants a church leader to share His vision with his team members and people. A good church leader knows how to put the God given plan into practice. A church leader is the person who influences his team members and leads team members to carry out the agreed objectives, by following the example of the Christ. People under him follow his way of life; a church leader gets people to act on church and mission goals, and he also ministers the need of people. A Church leader humbly realizes that he needs Gods help and needs it in developing good plans that will work for others. These working plans then successfully meet the desired goals. A church leader does not build plans for other people to merely honor them, but he does it for the good of his people with everlasting results. UNCHANGED LOYALTY A church leader demonstrates loyalty that never changes. A church leader is faithful to his promises and duties. He never finds fault in his job; people respect him as a man of God living among them. A church leader gives his life to Gods mission and purpose and spends his entire life doing it. Loyalty being a leadership quality, a church leader is always loyal to God and his people. A church leader needs loyalty to start and grow a church or group. A loyal church leader is the base of a healthy church to grow and a key element for a church to produce other churches. A church leader influences others in his ministry through his loyalty to Jesus Christ as the Savior and Lord. A loyal church leader produces loyal members he starts and finishes his job with his team very well. A successful Christian leader is always keen and willing to work with a community or groups. He has a strong desire to develop community services together. USE OF GODÃ¢â¬â¢S GIFTS God has gifted all people with different abilities and characteristics. Nowadays, this divine gift directs people to serve churches, as ushers, church school teachers, financial officers, directors of food pantries, youth leaders, and in so many other roles. It all starts with gifts, which can be utilized in a variety of ways. Gifts are given by the God to everyone. The God doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t limit the gifts to his people, so we shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t limit leadership to others. The potential to lead by using gifts for enabling others in ministry does not requires intelligence, education, economic status, age, gender, or any other human distinction. Ã¢â¬Å"Children and youth, as well as adults, all are gifted. Women and men, boys and girls have all been gifted which they can use in leadership of a church. It does not mean, however, that everyone should be an administrator of a churchÃ¢â¬ . Gifts are several and of different nature, the variety of these gifts is much greater than churches usually realize. There are many gifts beyond the gifts that are usually used in preaching, teaching, and committee work. If one is to use all God given gifts for his leadership within a church, he/she must discover that wide range of gifts, and welcome the spirit to employ them. It is not always an easy task for a human to identify gifts since gifts have strange way of hiding themselves, particularly from those people who hold them. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s given gifts are so much a part of our personality that people not likely to think of them as gifts. For example, if a person is a good organizer, he must recognize this specialty and take it as a gift given by God. As GodÃ¢â¬â¢s gifts are discovered by interacting with others. However, discovering gifts is not enough because many people use there gifts haphazardly, with no attention to their development. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s given giftÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness can be significantly enhanced through intentional development of them. For example, if a person with natural painting ability can choose not to practice or take lessons and keep his ability as hobby and keeps his gift undefined from being fully utilized for service. The church leaders provide opportunities to people for training and development of Gods given gifts. They are intentional about using these gifts of children and youth in future leadership. The church leaders encourage their members to affirm and identify one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s gifts. People discover and experiments their gifts in an atmosphere of acceptance provided by the church leader. A church leader expands his understanding in order to be comprehensive and not neglect peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s gifts. CHURCH LEADER ENABLES OTHERS A church leader uses his gifts to enable others to discover, develops, and use their GodÃ¢â¬â¢s given gifts. A church leader truly enables other people helping them to become GodÃ¢â¬Ës intended persons. This is not a true leadership to just manipulate others to act in a certain manner. A church leader puts aside his or own ego needs and coach others in such a way that help them blossom. The key function of a church leader is to facilitate others by helping them in discovering, developing, and effectively utilizing their God given gifts. Church leaders have five essential components to enable people. These are helping them to gain knowledge, encourage personal growth, assist them in working with others, aid in skill development, and provide appropriate settings. Here the term Ã¢â¬Å"KnowledgeÃ¢â¬ is about information of the Christian traditions, quality Bible study, the nature and mission of the church, and the expert knowledge related to particular areas of services. The personal growth includes people growth as they develop awareness of giftedness, self knowledge, and understanding of purpose, which is firmly stable in a relationship with Jesus Christ. A church leader is able to work well with others; it is an essential element of the leadership. Skills development includes effective communication, managing small group, organization, and having healthy relationships with others that is beneficial for his ministry. A church leader gives importance to people using their gifts in such circumstance that improve potential of their success. The role of a church leader is not always immediate or direct. If a person who provides nurture to young children is providing early enabling for the leadership of others. Therefore, a church leader needs to be seen in his every task in terms of how it enables people for ministry. The Church leadership as a service may be a new perception for some people, so the church needs to have deep study that explores up JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ own servant leadership model. A church leader must provide opportunities and safe places for members to develop and use their God given gifts. Discovering and developing GodÃ¢â¬â¢s gifts for people is not an end in itself. The ministry for which people are gifted is on a large scale, taking its place within and outside a church, even extends throughout the GodÃ¢â¬â¢s world. The black church is the one place in our community where people come together and pool their resources to better minister to the church and the community (1993, 54). There are mutual ministries among church members as accepting, loving, available, supportive, and accountable community of faith. Out of the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s boundaries, church leaders respond to human need by teaching love and hope, empowering the powerless, uplifting the poor, restoring creation, confronting all that harms persons and creation, and reconciling persons to God and one another. People note different implications for churches because the growth of effective leaders is grounded in a churchs vision of its ministry, a declaration of that vision needs not only to be created, but also acted on. Churchs involvements within and outside of the church provides a map of leadership opportunities by providing a starting point for selecting and developing leaders. COMMUNITY BEHAVIOR African American spirituality has woven collectively the best of African Anglo cultures to creatively shape their own African American identity. While black peoples have not been socially, politically or economically free in the history, the practice of spirituality has facilitated the development of different forms of cultural and spiritual freedom by interpreting, transcending and embracing, the constraints of an oppressive culture. Furthermore, the development of their own beliefs, norms, forms, practices, and structures has given rise to a culture and life that is a distinctive form of human survival, existence, and, freedom most importantly. The black churches as the centers of freedom influenced the praxis of African-American spirituality. They have become safe places where blacks gathered to embrace their combined concerns as a community of faith. They have been the only institutions in the African American experience that has continued relative independence from the domesticating influence of white pressure and overlords. Some black churches consider may be the last place to see integration due to the need to maintain a power base not available to black people elsewhere. After reviewing some aspects of worship as the context for cultural and spiritual freedom, black preaching in and out sides of the black churches are one of the most powerful expressions of freedom for black people in America. The ability to produce a soul language that defines truth into systems of meaning gives power and purpose to black people. Subsequently, Black community successfully adopts and adapts the structures of the much larger culture for their own purpose this practice comes from a double consciousness or translating. African Americans translated the experience of one kind to that of another which leading them to freedom. Therefore, black people spirituality gave freedom to the spirit and mind that the external condition could not take away. The religious approach is due to a deep faith in the sacredness of life that reaffirmed a personal dignity in blacks which resulted in the practice of nonviolence and mercy. Black community determines themselves how they responded to oppression. Various forms expressing improvisation and innovation from black soul forces constituted black culture. These forms under the subtitles black music, literature, humor, folk tales, sports, art and dance; and their worship forms under the headings of prayer, shouting, healing, dancing, singing praising and instrumental music transformation, teaching and preaching. These forms express that what is true and valuable will be determined by black community itself and will subvert and defy attempts of the larger culture to discern.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
My Educational Philosophy Teachers are the shapers of tomorrow. They work with the future on a daily basis: they have the privilege of working with children. Children determine the brightness and promise of their future and our future, as well. This is why I find teaching to be the greatest career choice anyone could make. Children entrust their teacher with the better part of their day. This time that they give should be treated as valuable as it surely is. The worth of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ time is immeasurable. This time cannot be returned to them and, likewise, should be treated with respect. When well spent, this time can be used valuably. Educators have several purposes, but those who understand the value of the time spent with their students can better prepare those students for the future. From the first day when students set foot in my classroom, I become responsible for them. I decided to become an educator because I want to make an impact on todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world and the world of tomorrow. In my opinion, educators have the greatest opportunity to make this impact because they are with twenty-five impressionable children for eight hours a day and 180 days a year. In many cases, the teacher is the only stability some children have. I will become a guide to many expectant children. I become a very important element in their lives as I am their educator, their motivator, their nurse, their disciplinarian, and, hopefully, their role model. Teachers are not just responsible for a childÃ¢â¬â¢s educational growth. As a teacher, I will be responsible for the growth of the whole child. I want to become my studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ motivator and help them achieve the best. Each child should be made aware of his potential and abilities. The teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s job is to keep each student involved and interested in his education. This requires the teacher to do much one-on-one instruction. This is where one of my educational philosophies, Existentialism, comes in. All students need to appreciate their uniqueness; therefore, they should be given some responsibility in making decisions about their education.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Is equal pay the same as equitable pay? First you need to know the difference between the two. Equal pay would be a female doing the job of a construction electrician getting the same pay as her male counter part. Equitable pay is the perceived fairness when employeeÃ¢â¬ s compare pay from their job with other jobs in the company. You also need to know that pay adequacy is the pay level that allows the employee to meet basic needs and to achieve a standard of living that is minimally acceptable to the employee. (Kirkpatrick 1996) the last thing to describe is Equity Theory. Equity Theory maintains that people seek a balance between there efforts and rewards and the rewards that others receive for their efforts. Thus, if one employee believes that his or her efforts are being under-rewarded in comparison to his or her colleagues' efforts, the employee will attempt to restore balance by either securing additional rewards or reducing his or her efforts. Equity pay can undercompensate or overcompensate, two forms of inequity, and cause Ã¢â¬Å"distressÃ¢â¬ that workers seek. The results suggest that it is not necessarily the case that each [worker] is simply out to get as much as he can for the work. There appear to be equally strong desires that each one should earn the right amount-fair and reasonable amount relative to others. Workers who receive compensation that is considered less than equitable are more likely to strike, file grievances, or eventually withdraw from the workplace if the inequity, or the distress associated with inequity, is not reduced. Equity pay also implies that underpayment produces a different reaction in workers than overpayment does, although both reactions are considered distressing. Underpaid workers may experience feelings of deprivation and of being cheated, whereas overpayment may produce feelings of guilt and unworthiness. These different expressions of distress may engender quite different strategies for reduction. How workers reduce or avoid feelings of inequity caused by overpayment. Individuals would rather raise their estimations of their own inputs than reduce the valuation of their outcomes; the latter process could be far more costly to the individual. Attitudes that devalue the job and/or its outcomes could eventually lead to job dissatisfaction, which is likely to diminish one's overall well-being. Kirkpatrick emplies that Ã¢â¬Å"If employeeÃ¢â¬ s are not meeting pay adequacy through pay or other resources, then striving to maintain fair pay is irrelevant. Ã¢â¬ (P158) An organization that decides to base an employees' compensation on his or her impact eliminates the need for job classifications and for most compensation management tools. Although this may seem extreme, it's an attractive option, especially given the weaknesses of most classification and compensation systems. Current job classification methodologies attempt to create job level hierarchies based on such criteria as knowledge, skills and the required abilities. The logic here is that the classification system aids compensation management by providing a means to compare salaries paid to equivalent jobs throughout the organization. Compensation should be driven by an employee's contribution, not by his or her classification. Impact analysis eliminates the need for most compensation management tools, including salary surveys that sound the depths of a collective pool of ignorance. Instead of capping salaries at some percentage of what everyone else is paying, compensation can be limited by the estimated r actual return generated by the position. In those rare cases in which market pressure and operational necessity demand that a position be paid more than the return it will generate, impact analysis will keep management apprised of the negative return to prevent its being lost or forgotten. Equal pay not only treats individuals fairly it benefits us allÃ¢â¬âparticularly our Nation's families. It empowers individuals to become more self-sufficient, reducing the dependence of many families on government assistance. It also rises women's purchasing power, increases their pensions, and improves their capacity to save, all of which help to strengthen our economy. During the past three decades, our Nation has made a strong commitment to ensuring that every American is treated with dignity and equality in the workplace. Legislation such as the Equal Pay Act and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act has helped us make progress in correcting discriminatory practices. But we still have a long way to go before the wage gap between men and women are eliminated.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Its easy to make a rainbow of colored flames using common household chemicals. Basically, what you need are chemicals for each of the colors, plus a fuel. Use a fuel that burns with a clean blue flame. Good choices include rubbing alcohol, 151 rum, hand sanitizer made with alcohol, lighter fluid, or alcohol fuel treatment. You can get a rainbow effect by placing chemicals directly on burning wood or paper, but sodium in these fuels produces a strongly yellow flame, which tends to overpower the other colors. Set Up the Rainbow On a fire-proof surface, line up small piles of powder for each of the colorants. You only need a small pinch of each chemical (1/2 teaspoon or less). Usually, youll run your rainbow red, orange, yellow, green, blue and violet (or the opposite direction). It works best if you try to keep the colorant chemicals separate. When the fuel is added, some of the colors naturally will run together. Once the chemicals are set up, theres no hurry to light the fire. When you are ready, add fuel and then light it at one end. Youll get the most vivid coloring using methanol, but it burns hot. Hand sanitizer burns with the coolest temperature flame, but the high water content means the rainbow fire doesnt last long. Feel free to experiment. One compromise is to dampen the powders with methanol and follow up with a layer of hand sanitizer. As the fuel burns, the water will naturally extinguish the flames. The colorant chemicals are not consumed by the flames, so you can add more fuel to renew the rainbow. Table of Flame Colorants Most of the chemicals used for the project can be obtained from a grocery store. All of them are available at a superstore, like a Walmart or Target Supercenter. Color Chemical Common Source Red strontium nitrate or a lithium salt contents of a red emergency flare or lithium from a lithium battery Orange calcium chloride or mix red/yellow chemicals calcium chloride bleaching powder or mix salt with flare contents Yellow sodium chloride table salt (sodium chloride) Green boric acid, borax, copper sulfate borax laundry booster, boric acid disinfectant or insect killer, copper sulfate root killer Blue alcohol rubbing alcohol, Heet methanol, 151 rum, or alcohol-based hand sanitizer, lighter fluid Violet potassium chloride salt substitute Rainbow Fire Safety Information In addition to performing the project on a heat-safe surface, its a good idea to do it in a well-ventilated area, under a fume hood, or outdoors. There may be a small amount of smoke.Do not add fuel to the fire while it is still burning. Wait until the flames are extinguished and then add more alcohol and re-light the fire.The flames are easily extinguished by blowing them out, suffocating them (as with the lid of a pan), or by adding water.Its a good idea to wear protective eyewear and clothing, as for any science demonstration. Avoid wearing synthetic fabrics, as they readily melt if exposed to flame. Cotton, silk, and wool are good choices, or you can wear a lab coat.
Friday, December 27, 2019
The number of interviews and focus groups combined with the jurisprudence and qualitative media analysis is designed to ensure a sufficiently robust sample within Spain and Australia. It will also enable me to conduct comparative analysis. Thanks to the work for my MA at Utrecht University, I know high-profile individuals within the Spanish and Australian criminal justice system that can act as gatekeepers, granting me access to each of my target populations as well as relevant documentation. I am aware that focus groups can be very time consuming, and that calling participants into the same focus group session on a particular day can be very complicated. However, this issue will be overcome thanks to the high hierarchical position of my gatekeepers, who can help me organise and summon into the focus groups any sort of participant from each criminal justice system. My main supervisor, Angus Nurse, also knows my gatekeepers personally, hence their availability is guaranteed. I plan to access al participants using snowballing sampling. My idea is that my gatekeeper/s in each country will help me recruit future subjects from among his acquaintances. Further methodological justification and epistemology The research methodology is qualitative, in order to elicit the proper understanding of the social reality being studied (Flick, 2009): forest arson as a state-corporate crime. Hence, the epistemology underpinning the research is clearly interpretivist. Qualitative methodsShow MoreRelatedBSBRSK501B Manage Risk Essay4580 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesÃ¯ » ¿BSBRSK501B Manage Risk Formative Assessments Activity 5 (1). SWOT Analysis Strength 1.Australian chain of upscale mid to high range departmental store 2.Myer has stores in all Australian states and the Australian Capital Territory 3.Variety of brands in affordable price gives consumer a lot of choices 4. Strong brand presence and reputation in Australia 5. Customer-focused service Weakness 1. Undeveloped distribution channel which serves only in some locations in Australia 2.Retail area pricesRead Morelevel of knowledge on the importance of basic personal hygiene among the Grade 5 pupils of WNU, Academic Year 2013-20147932 Words Ã |Ã 32 Pageschain of infection is broken, infection cannot spread. In response to the need for effective codes of hygiene in home and everyday life settings the International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene has developed aÃ risk-based approachÃ (based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), which has come to be known as targeted hygiene. Targeted hygiene is based on identifying the routes of spread of pathogens in the home, and applying hygiene procedures at critical points at appropriate times to breakRead MoreBusiness Law Summary7817 Words Ã |Ã 32 PagesCodesÃ Ã¢â¬âÃ booksÃ whereÃ actsÃ ofÃ statueÃ areÃ unitedÃ inÃ aÃ structuredÃ mannerÃ CivilÃ lawÃ Ã¢â¬âÃ doesÃ differentiateÃ betweenÃ privateÃ andÃ publicÃ law,Ã CommonÃ lawÃ doesÃ notÃ Ã 4.3Ã IslamicÃ lawÃ ShariaÃ Ã¢â¬âÃ IslamicÃ notionÃ ofÃ lawÃ HalalÃ Ã¢â¬âÃ inÃ accordanceÃ withÃ theÃ rulesÃ ofÃ IslamicÃ religionÃ Ã 5.1Ã Analysis,Ã Why?Ã FromÃ aÃ businessÃ perspectiveÃ anÃ analysisÃ ofÃ theÃ regulatoryÃ environmentÃ isÃ neededÃ forÃ strategicÃ inputÃ inÃ theÃ followingÃ situations:Ã i)Ã inÃ selectingÃ newÃ markets,Ã theÃ regulatoryÃ environmentÃ isÃ aÃ selectionÃ criterionÃ ii)Ã uponÃ enteringÃ markets,Ã theÃ regulatoryÃ environmentÃ influencesÃ theÃ entryÃ Read MoreCase 29 Panera Bread Company: Rising Fortunes?25159 Words Ã |Ã 101 Pages GENERAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS External Analysis The external analysis is critical for a firm to understand to be able to realize the opportunities and threats that exist in the industry they are competing in to help achieve a strategic competitiveness. The external analysis consists of a general environmental analysis, industry analysis, five forces analysis, industry competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis, and the key success factors for the industry. General Environment Analysis In order for a companyRead MoreRacism and Ethnic Discrimination44667 Words Ã |Ã 179 PagesDiscrimination in health care 45 5.4.4 Discrimination in churches 46 5.4.5 Discrimination in education 47 5.4.6 Discrimination in processes promoted by international cooperation agencies and development aid 48 5.4.7 Discrimination through the media 48 2 of 104 Racism and Ethnic Discrimination in Nicaragua November 2006 5.4.8 The impact of racism on gender relations 5.4.9 Migration and racism 5.4.10 Advance of the agricultural frontier 5.5 Manifestations of ethnic discrimination
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Defining African Diaspora When defining Diaspora, many aspects can come to mind. The topic of Diaspora usually brings to mind certain ethnic groups, but that of African and African-Americans typically are not considered. Diaspora is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"To refer to migrants who settle in distant lands and produce new generations, all the while maintaining ties of affection with and making occasional visits to each other and their homeland.Ã¢â¬ Usually those of Jewish heritage are known for Diaspora, but around the year 1963, at a conference on African history at the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, George Shepperson and Joseph E. Harris first coined the term of the African Diaspora. This identity was very important and became heavilyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In order to completely understand the emphasis of the Black Atlantic, one could say that it can be described as a connection, showing its importance throughout history. Every historical journey, relationship, and instance that Africans have had encompasses and explains exactly what the Black Atlantic should. The African Diaspora and the Black Atlantic are both different and similar and they help to show the origins, migrations, and history of the African people. Without understanding both, it would be hard to fully imagine every aspect that pertains to African heritage, but because of both terms, opportunity to learn and appreciate have become available. The Analysis of Race by W.E.B. Du Bois and Howard Winant The concept of race has always been a prevalent part of history and has been a driving force in defining and understanding certain time periods. The analysis of race is something that is not always easy to do, but W.E.B. Du Bois and Howard Winant allowed readers to better understand within their articles. Du Bois begins the article by stating the ever changing and developing concept of race. He also gives the idea that race was a way to divide the masses, and this concept is clearly seen throughout several events in history. Because this divide, many would try to distinguish by physical characteristics rather than the personality, morals, and experience that a person could offer. Further into Du BoisÃ¢â¬â¢ argument, the